Wednesday, 10 February 2016

Sinoatrial Node rhythms

The sinus node (SA) is located in the roof of the right atrium. It is the fastest physiological pacemaker. When the sinus node generates an electrical impulse, the surrounding cells of the right atrium depolarize. Then the cells of the left atrium, the AV (atrioventricular) node, follow, and at last the ventricles are stimulated via the His bundle. 

Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR)

The term normal sinus rhythm (NSR) is sometimes used to denote a specific type of sinus rhythm where all other measurements on the ECG also fall within designated normal limits, giving rise to the characteristic appearance of the ECG when the electrical conduction system of the heart is functioning normally.[2] However, other sinus rhythms can be entirely normal in particular patient groups and clinical contexts, so the term is sometimes considered a misnomer and its use is sometimes discouraged.

Sinus Bradycardia

Sinus bradycardia is a sinus rhythm with a rate that is lower than normal. In humans, bradycardia is generally defined to be a rate of under 60 beats per minute.

Sinus Tachycardia

Sinus tachycardia (also colloquially known as sinus tach or sinus tachy) is a sinus rhythm with an elevated rate of impulses, defined as a rate greater than 100 beats/min (bpm) in an average adult. The normal resting heart rate in the average adult ranges from 60–100 beats/min. Note that the normal heart rate varies with age, with infants having normal heart rate of 110–150 bpm, in contrast to the elderly, who have slower normals.

Sinus Arrhythmia

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a naturally occurring variation in heart rate that occurs during a breathing cycle. RSA is also a measure of parasympathetic nervous system activity - which denotes "rest and digest" behaviors.

Sinus Exit Block

Sinus Pause